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Nephrology Department


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Nephrology Department

Nephrotic Syndrome is a kind of kidney disorder which occurs in the human body when the body passes too much protein in the Urine.

Nephrotic Syndrome occurs due to damage occurring due to small blood vessels in the kidneys which remove or filter wastage from the human body and causes swelling in the feet and ankles and also increase the cause of health problems.

Treatment of Nephrotic Syndrome is based on the condition which requires medications. The purpose of giving medicines to Nephrotic Syndrome can increase your risks of infections of blood clots. Your doctor might recommend medications and dietary changes to prevent complications.

What are the different symptoms that patients need to take into account?

  • The swelling will occur in feet and around the eyes.
  • Urine convert into the form
  • Weight gain
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of appetite

Causes of Nephrotic Syndrome:

The leading cause of this disease is related to the damage of tiny blood vessels in kidneys. These blood vessels are called Glomeruli.

The glomeruli are responsible for filtering the blood before it passes through the kidneys. It also separates the thing which the human body does not require. Healthy glomeruli keep protein in the human body, which is needed to maintain the right amount of fluid in the human body. When damage occurs in the human body, it passes too much protein to leave your body which causes the Nephrotic Syndrome.

Many other causes which are responsible for Nephrotic Syndrome:

There are many other diseases which are responsible for Nephrotic Syndrome. There is much reason involved in it.

Diabetic Kidney Disease:

Diabetic patients have more chances to suffer from this damage.

Minimal change disease:

This is one of the common causes of Nephrotic Syndrome in children. This disease occurs in the human body due to abnormal kidney disorders.

Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis:

Characterized by scarring of some of the Glomeruli, this disease can be a result of another illness. It is a genetic disorder that occurs due to unknown reasons.

Membranous Nephropathy:

This disease occurs in the human body due to kidney disorder. This kidney disorder occurs in the human body, which occurs due to the thick wall within Glomeruli. This thickness occurs due to deposits made by the immune system. It is also related to other medical conditions such as lupus, hepatitis B, Malaria and cancer or occur due to some unknown reason. 

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus:

This chronic disease can lead to severe kidney damage.


This disorder occurs in the human body when amyloid proteins accumulate in the human body. Amyloid builds up often damages such as the kidney filtering system.

What are the different risk factors involved in it?

Factors which are responsible for nephrotic Syndrome such as:

Medical conditions that can lead to damage kidney:

The specific medical condition can direct you towards nephrotic Syndrome, for example, diabetics, amyloidosis, reflux nephropathy and other kidney diseases.

Certain medication:

Some medication is responsible for leading the human body towards kidney disorders such as nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs used to fight infections.

Certain infections: 

Infections that increase the risk of Nephrotic Syndrome include HIV, Hepatitis C and Malaria.


There are different complication include in it:

Blood clots:

The inability of Glomeruli can lead to the failure of losing blood proteins that help prevent clotting. This increases the risk of developing a blood clot in your veins.

High blood cholesterol and elevated blood triglycerides:

When protein albumin falls in blood, the liver makes more albumin. At the same time, your liver starts to produce more albumin due to liver releases more cholesterol and triglycerides. 


Loss of too much protein from the body can lead to malnutrition which decreases the weight loss and also decreases red blood cells, low blood protein and low level of vitamin D.

High blood pressure:

The damage in glomeruli produces excessive fluid in the body, which ultimately led to an increase in blood pressure.

Kidney injury:

If the kidney loses its ability to filter blood in glomeruli, there is a waste product built in the human body, which ultimately leads to emergency dialysis.

Chronic kidney disease:

This is one of the primary causes of Nephrotic Syndrome, which ultimately led to kidney disorder. If the kidney does not perform properly, it will eventually lead to dialysis and kidney transplant.


Patients who suffer from Nephrotic Syndrome have more chances to suffer from different infections.

Diagnosis of Nephrotic Syndrome:

Different tests and procedures involved in Diagnosis Nephrotic Syndrome:

Urine test:

The first process is a urine test. This will help in detecting abnormalities in Urine such as the amount of protein occurring in proteins.

Blood tests:

Blood tests can show a low level of protein albumin and often decrease the level of blood protein overall. Loss of albumin can often lead to an increase in blood cholesterol and triglycerides. The creatinine and urea nitrogen levels in the blood also affect kidney functions.

Kidney biopsy:

Kidney biopsy occurs by a doctor to collect kidney tissues. In this process, a needle is inserted through your skin into your kidney.


To treat Nephrotic Syndrome, the doctor uses different treatments to cure various medical conditions. The doctor might recommend other diet and medications to control signs and symptoms or treat complication conditions of Nephrotic Syndrome.

There are different types of medication involve in it:

Blood pressure medications:

Drugs are called angiotensin-converting enzymes (ACE) which doctors have given to patients to control blood pressure and also use to cure the amount of protein released in Urine. 

Water pills:

Diuretics help in controlling swelling. This medicine typically includes furosemide (Lasix), spironolactone (Aldactone, Carospir and Thiazides ).

Cholesterol reducing medications: 

Statins can also help in reducing and lowering cholesterol. However, it is not cleared that cholesterol-reducing medication can cure Nephrotic Syndrome such as heart attacks or reducing the risk of death. Statins include atorvastatin (Lipitor),fluvastatin (Altoprev),pravastatin (Pravachol),rosuvastatin (Crestor ,Ezalor) and Simvastatin (Zocor).

Blood thinners (Anticoagulants):

The doctor specifically refers this medicine to a thin blood clot. Anticoagulants include heparin, warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) , dabigatran (Pradaxa), apixaban (Eliquis) and rivaroxaban(Xarelto).

Immune System-suppressing medications: 

These medicines are specifically designed to control the immune system of the human body, such as corticosteroids. These medicines are also quite useful in diminishing the cause of Nephrotic Syndrome. These medicines include rituximab (Rituxan) and Cyclosporine and cyclophosphamide.

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